Archaeology of Roman Sicily 3101-DWARS-OG
Research studies about Roman Sicily during the Republic and the Empire are contrary to appearances, the relatively poorly developed. Modern authors agree with each other, that Sicily, as the first Roman province, was a kind of test for Roman administration. For the new "owner" of the island, everything was different than in terra Italia. By the end of the first century BC, was widely spoken Greek, as were popular earlier administrative systems, traditions or beliefs.
The conquest of Sicily was in 241 BC, and the establishment of the Roman province of Sicily, the first in 227 BC. In the east of the island, there was still the kingdom of Syracuse, ruled by Hieron II, which was defeated, and fell only in 211 BC. These territories were difficult to administer; Hieron II has established and consolidated the region south-east of the island. He also has introduced a new tax system, has given new roles to individual cities. In addition, this region was very advanced with the development of architectural design. City were stronger and more independent than others. Gradually, however, the Romans took over management of the island (including taxes). Grain from Sicily played a colossal role in the logistics of the Roman conquest in the second century BC, Sicily itself and then enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity. Between 135-132 and 104-100 in Sicily erupted two huge uprising of slaves. A new law called lex Rupilia has been established.
Another important time for the governments of the islands were Werres, who did not respect any rights on the island and led it to ruin. In 42 BC, Sextus, son of Pompey, took control of Sicily and blocked the benefits to Rome. The island was recovered by Octavian. Which testifies to the fact that, despite the fact that perhaps Sicily stopped to be a granary of Rome, but still still enjoyed the attention.
After the Roman conquest of all began to function in the new realities. Cities, so far independent (even those included in the Syracuse kingdom) became dependent on Rome (civitas decumana). How and whether it functioned, and were settled in the new political structures? Does the city have played the same role as before? What is the significance was in the days of the Republic, and they gained during the Empire. Many cities in this part of the island is the so-called "hill-town", which, when rivalries between the Greek colonies, Cartagina i and Romans, had an urban city.
Following topics will be describe:
1. Introduction, geography, general informations.
2. Sicily before the Roman conquest (Greek and Phoenician domination on the island). History and economy of island.
3. Syracuse Kingdom of Hieron II. Lex Hieronica.
4. Internal conflicts in Sicily and I and II Punic War.
5. Cultural background and political and economic organization of the Roman province.
6. Written sources about Sicily.
7. Sicily during the Roman Republic.
8. Uprising of slaves and land ownership on the island. Lex Rupilia.
9. Governorship of Werres and prosecutions of Cicero.
10. Sextus Pompey and Octavian. The reorganization of the province by Octavian Augustus. Sicily during the Roman Empire.
11. Urbanization changes - a Roman public architecture (e.g. Syracusae, Catina, Tauromenium, Tyndaris, Akrai, Henna, Lilybaeum, Panormus).
12. Roads in the province of Sicily.
13. Transport and communication on the rivers and sea.
14. The natural resources of Sicily (wheat and barley, wine, olive oil, fruits, garum). Agriculture and landowners (Aguglia, Campanaio, Palazzolo Acreide). Ager publicus (Leontinoi)
15. The economy of the island and business contacts.
16. Social structure.
17. The Roman civil architecture (Agrigento, Boeo Capo, San Biagio, Tellaro, Piazza Armerina).
18. Archaic coinage of Sicily.
19. Organization of coinage in Sicily before the Roman conquest.
20. Coinage in the provincia of Sicily.
21. Overview of the major centres: Lilibeo, Trapani, Mazara, Erice, Regesta, Salemi, Milazzo, Pachino.
22. Overview of the major centres: Segestane Terme, Catania, Centuripe, Herbessus, Messina, Syracuse.
23. Beliefs and cults on the island.
24. Sicily in late antiquity. Christianity of Sicily (III-VII century AD)
25. Travellers to Sicily. Polish authors about Sicily.
Type of course
Students who will participate in the lecture would get the information about history, archaeology and numismatics of Sicily, the first Roman province. They will learn about the geography of the island and the most important archaeological sites and monuments of the island from the time period of the Republic and Empire.
The opportunity to participate in interdisciplinary research and excavations on the Greek colony and Roman town Acrae (Palazzolo Acreide, Sicily, Italy) could be available for the brightest students.
Oral exam, on the end of term of lectures.
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12. Wilson R.J.A., Sicily under the Roman Empire. The archaeology of Roman province, 36 BC – AD 535, Warminster 1990.
13. Wilson R.J.A., Roman Architecture in a Greek World: the Example of Sicily, (w:): Architecture and architectural Sculpture in the Roman Empire, red. Henig M., Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, Monograph 29, 1990, s. 67-90.
14. Zambon E., Tradition and Innovation: Sicily between Hellenism and Rome, Stuttgart 2008.
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