Deterioration of Rock Materials 1300-WDTP-GES
The lecture presents wide knowledge on the destruction processes in rock materials used in various branches of civil engineering and architecture. Deterioration processes are continuously considered and analyzed in the practical application of rock materials and their protection against the harmful effects of the atmosphere, water solutions and anthropopression factors. This is particularly important in relation to strongly urbanized environments with a high degree of industrialization and highly aggressive impact. Deterioration processes significantly decrease the quality of rock materials, both in terms of aesthetics as well as physical and chemical properties decreasing their resistance. Recognition of these phenomena, capability of predicting the effects depending on the rock type, assessment of the deterioration rate as well as knowledge of protection measures are indispensible elements of practical activity with regard to the protection and renovation of historic stone objects and design of new architectural objects.
The lecture presents a specific approach to geological issues linked with the formation and diagenesis of various rock types with practical application. Therefore, an important topic is the characteristics of geomechanic properties of rock materials, related to resistance properties, susceptibility to fracturing and lithological properties influencing deterioration processes and their dynamics.
The topic will be presented in the form of traditional lectures with presentations, lab classes and workshops allowing direct observation of deterioration effects on architectural stone objects.
A detailed schedule includes:
* geological conditions of rock susceptibility to deterioration, linked with their formation, diagenesis, tectonic and relaxation processes. This topic is strictly linked with the knowledge on the basic geological processes influencing rock properties, thus their resistance to destruction factors (2 h);
* environmental characteristics of the causes of rock material destruction and its mechanisms. This part presents factors causing the destruction of rock materials and influencing the rate of the process (4 h). The following issues are discussed:
- mechanical factors disturbing rock structure;
- atmospheric factors linked with air pollution in an urban and industrial environment, causing chemical transformation of rock forming minerals;
- influence of water and water solutions generating corrosion processes and causing soil crystallization in the pore space of the rock material;
- biological factors linked with activity of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) on external surfaces and within the rock material;
* description of methods of qualitative and quantitative assessment of the deterioration rate and its measurable effects. Methods of field study and lab analysis that allow determining deterioration indicators for various destruction factors are discussed (2 h);
* presentation of geomechanic conditions of rock fracturing processes that induce deterioration. Issues on the resistance of rock materials, their susceptibility to cyclic variables, destructive strain and the course of fracturing processes of the rock framework in various lithological types are presented (4 h);
* visit in lab and presentation of laboratory methods used in the assessment of deterioration processes caused by the most common factors: freeze, soil crystallization, sulphide effects and salt mist. The students prepare samples and assess the deterioration in subsequent measurement cycles (8 h);
* presentation of the methods of rock material protection against the effects of aggressive atmospheric environment, water and its solutions, as well as renovation of damaged stone elements. The effectiveness of the applied methods in relation to different types of rock material, directly linked with geological conditions of its origin is also discussed (4 h).
* workshops presenting selected architectonic objects with regard to their susceptibility to deterioration factors (6 h).
Type of course
On completion of the course, the student:
- knows the causes of deterioration of rock materials, understands the deterioration process and is capable of predicting its possible results in variable environmental conditions (P2A_W01),
- is able to determine the degree of rock material susceptibility based on its lithogenic properties and other geological conditions assessed with the applied methods (P2A_W02),
- knows and understands the physical, chemical and biological conditions of deterioration processes in rock materials (P2A_W03),
- knows methods used in the study of rock material susceptibility to the effects of harmful environmental factors (P2A_W07),
- is able to diagnose advancement of the deterioration process in variable rock materials with application of basic and specialized research procedures (P2A_U01),
- has the skill to plan relevant procedures of intensified deterioration research in the lab (P2A_U04),
- determines the rate of deterioration and the integrity factor modeled in the lab for various rock materials (P2A_U06),
- points out effective methods of disintegration reduction in aggressive environments and selects the best remediation measures (P2A_U07)
- is able to write a report based on the recognition of actual deterioration phenomena, individual research procedures and analysis of the obtained results (P2A_U09),
- demonstrates knowledge on the negative, proceeding deterioration effects and is aware of the need to submit information on the harmful effect of selected environmental factors (P2A_K01),
- is aware of the negative influence of deterioration on the cultural and historical value of stone monuments and is capable of determining the best remedial measures (P2A_K03),
- is aware of the negative influence of deterioration on the cultural and historical values of stone monuments in urban environments with increased intensity of aggressive factors and is capable of thinking and acting imaginatively (P2A_K08)
The final assessment on the basis of an individual presentation / project and written test.
Permissible triple excused absence from classes.
Additional information (registration calendar, class conductors, localization and schedules of classes), might be available in the USOSweb system: