The lecture will be presented to the following issues:
1. Periodic Table of Elements and properties of elements. Structure of the atom: model of Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, electron configurations of elements. The law of periodicity: volatility atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity on the periodic table of elements; calculating the degree of oxidation of the elements in the inorganic and organic compounds;
2. Types of chemical bonds (covalent bonds, polarized covalent, ionic, metallic, coordination), the conditions of their formation; properties of chemical compounds resulting from the construction of the molecule;
3.Coordination complex, the impact of various factors on the stability of complexes, the concept of ligand and central atom, types of ligands, types of coordination complex, the number of coordination; complexes nomenclature, isomerism of coordination compounds;
4. The concept pH and pOH of solutions, pH scale. Principle of acid-base indicators;
5. Acids and bases according to the Lewis, Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry, electrolytic dissociation, the dissociation constant of the acid or base, strong and weak acids and bases, the degree of dissociation, proteolytic reactions. Amphoteric compounds and their reactions. Buffer solutions;
6. Hydrolysis of various types of salt. The concept of constant hydrolysis, the impact of various factors on the process of hydrolysis;
7. Precipitation and formation of sediments in nature. Basic concepts: solubility, solubility product, the factors affecting their solubility and precipitation of sediments;
8. Redox reactions - the concept of the oxidizer and reducer, balancing examples of redox reactions, disproportionation reactions;
9. Electrochemistry: the voltage range of metals, metal reactions with oxidizing and non-oxidizing acids, electrode processes occurring in galvanic cells, electrolysis of aqueous solutions of salts, acids and bases.
Type of course
After finishing the lecture the student is able to:
1. Save the electron configurations of elements. Discuss the chemical properties of elements due to their location in the periodic table: variation of the atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity, the valence. Calculate the oxidation state of elements in inorganic and organic compounds;
2. Discuss the types of chemical bonds the conditions of their formation; properties of chemical compounds resulting from the construction of the molecule;
3. Discuss the construction of coordination complex, the impact of various factors on the stability of complexes, explain concepts: ligand coordination number, the central atom, isomerism of coordination complex;
4. Explain and support examples of the following concepts: pH and pOH of solutions, pH scale. Discuss the theories of acids and bases: Lewis, Arrhenius, Bronsted - Lowry.
5. Explain the hydrolysis of various types of salts. He can also define the concept: solid hydrolysis - Kh, buffers and the principle of their operation, buffer capacity.
6. Explain the phenomenon of precipitation deposits and their formation in nature. Define concepts: solubility, solubility product, solution unsaturated, saturated and oversaturated.
7. Define the basic concepts of electrochemistry and redox reactions: the notion oxidizer and a reducing agent, disproportionation reaction. Display balancing exemplary redox reaction, and the reaction of metals with acids.
Written exam after the end of the lecture cycle. In order to take the final exam, student must pass a test covering the scope of the laboratories. The exam pass threshold is 51% correct answers. If the first date of the exam is not passed, the student has the right to take the retake exam. The student's absence on the first date of the exam should be justified, in the absence of justification, the student is entitled only to the resit date. The presence of students at lectures is not subject to control by the teacher.
Information on level of this course, year of study and semester when the course unit is delivered, types and amount of class hours - can be found in course structure diagrams of apropriate study programmes. This course is related to the following study programmes:
Additional information (registration calendar, class conductors, localization and schedules of classes), might be available in the USOSweb system: