At the exercises are carried out following topics:
1. The introductory exercises.
2. Preparation of the solutions with different concentrations. Explain the concept: concentration percentages, mole, molar mass, molecular mass, molar concentration concentration conversion, the molar fraction and solve tasks in this area.
3. Acid-base titration: quantitative chemical analysis - base titration analysis. Concepts: titration, analyte standard solution, the endpoint and equivalence point of titration. The division titration methods due to the nature of the titrant and the conduct titration. Potentiometric titration curves for the various systems.
4. Qualitative analysis of selected cations
Qualitative chemical analysis. Basic concepts: sensitivity, specificity and selectivity of the reaction qualitative detection limit, minimum detectable concentration limit, limit dilution. The reagents in chemical analysis: specific, selective, group, distinctive and masking. Division analytical groups cations by Bunsen, reagents group, precipitation conditions cations II, III and IV of the study group. Characteristic reactions of cations (Ag+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Bi3+, Zn2+, Fe3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, NH4+, K+).
5. Qualitative analysis of selected anions
The division of anions on analytical group by Bunsen, the criterion division (reactions of anions with Ag + and Ba2 +, solubility of sludge in dilute HNO3). Characteristic reactions of anions (Cl-, S2-, NO2-, CO32-, CrO42-, PO43-, NO3-, MnO4-, SO42-, SiO32-).
6. Reactions in aqueous solutions (1)
Self-ionization of water, pH and pOH of solutions, pH scale. The electrolytic dissociation, the power of acids and bases, theories of acids and bases according to Arrhenius, Bronsted - Lowry. Equilibria in aqueous solutions of weak acids or bases, the concept of pKa and pKb, the degree of dissociation - α, the factors affecting the size of the degree of dissociation. The impact of the common ion dissociation of weak electrolytes, the effect of the presence of strong acid and base dissociation of weak electrolytes.
7. The reactions in aqueous solution (2)
Hydrolysis of different types of salts. Hydrolysis of the salt separating the precipitate. Effects of temperature and pH and other ion equilibrium of the hydrolysis reaction of salt. Buffer solutions and the principle of their operation. Methods for the preparation of buffer solutions, the pH of the buffer, the buffer capacity.
8. A solubility
The definition of a solution of unsaturated, saturated and supersaturated. The definition of the solubility product. Conditions precipitates and their dissolution, solubility molar. Factors influencing the solubility of sediments - the effect of temperature, the influence of the common ion effect of salt does not precipitate with the common ion effect of hydrogen ions, the effect of the hydrolysis precipitate.
9. The coordination complex and substances amphoteric
The complexes (basic notions) - the central atom, ligand, chelate ligand, the coordination number, complex ion. Nomenclature complex ions and compounds. Isomerism of complex compounds - ion hydration, coordination, overlap. The gradual and total stability constants of complex compounds and impermanence. Factors affecting the stability of complex compounds. Amphoterism - elements forming oxides and hydroxides of amphoteric - positioned in the Periodic Table. The reactions of metals, oxides and hydroxides of amphoteric with strong acids and strong bases.
10. Daniell cell - construction, working principle, reactions occurring at the anode and the cathode during operation of the cell, electromotive force (SEM) cell. The normal hydrogen electrode. A number of voltage metals (electrochemical series). Reactions of metal having a negative standard potential. The reaction of metal with a positive standard potential. Electrolysis, tension scheduled - reactions occurring at the anode and the cathode during the electrolysis of salt, acids and bases.
11. Oxidation and reduction reactions. The rules for calculating the formal oxidation state of the elements in relationships. Definitions: the process of oxidation and reduction, oxidizer and reducer, examples reducers and oxidants, redox amfotery. Standard redox potentials.
Type of course
After completing the exercises the student is able to:
1. Prepare solutions of the desired concentration.
2. Carry out the acid-base titration. Explain the basic concepts of the analysis of titration: titration, analyte standard solution of the endpoint and equivalence point of titration. To distribute the titration methods due to the nature of the titrant and the conduct titration.
3. Explain and support examples of the following concepts: self-ionization of water, pH and pOH of solutions, pH scale, electrolytic dissociation, acids and bases strengths and weaknesses, dissociation constant of weak acids and bases - Ka and Kb (the relationship between these quantities), the concept of pKa and pKb, the degree of dissociation - α, the factors affecting the size of the degree of dissociation. Discuss the theories of acids and bases: Arrhenius, Bronsted - Lowry.
4. To explain the hydrolysis of various types of salts. He can also define the concept: solid hydrolysis - Kh, buffers and the principle of their operation, buffer capacity.
5. Explain the phenomenon of precipitation deposits and their formation in nature. Define concepts: solubility, solubility product, solution unsaturated, saturated and oversaturated.
6. Discuss the basic issues of coordination complex and amphoteric substances.
7. Describe the principle of operation Daniell cell - construction, working principle, reactions occurring at the anode and the cathode during operation of the cell, electromotive force (SEM) cell. Transcribe the reactions of metals having a negative standard potential reactions with acids and metals having a positive potential of standard acid. Correctly save the anode and cathode reactions during the electrolysis of different chemical compounds. Balance the oxidation and reduction reactions.
Assessment of students' work during laboratory classes (absence limit - 2; it is necessary to pass all the exercise reports; collect the pool of points required to pass the laboratory). Each laboratory during which the student was absent should be worked off on the date agreed with the teacher. Final written exam. If the first date of the test is not passed, the student has the right to join the retake test. The student's absence at the first date of the test should be justified, in the absence of justification, the student is entitled only to the correction date.
Information on level of this course, year of study and semester when the course unit is delivered, types and amount of class hours - can be found in course structure diagrams of apropriate study programmes. This course is related to the following study programmes:
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