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# Fundamentals of Physics IV 1100-2Ind13

The subject of the course are basic concepts of classical thermodynamics. Parameters describing the state of a system, important state functions, and the laws of thermodynamics are introduced and example applications are discussed. A simple model is used to introduce some fundamental concepts and laws of statistical physics. The lecture is illustrated with many experimental demonstrations. The main goal is to significantly widen the knowledge gained in school and to prepare students for the advanced courses of thermodynamics and statistical physics.

**Program:**

1. Description of a thermodynamical system. The concept of the thermodynamical equilibrium. State parameters. The zeroth law of thermodynamics. Temperature scales. Equations of state. Phase diagrams. Methods of temperature and pressure measurements.

2. Energy in thermodynamical systems. Concepts of work and heat. Joule's experiments. The first law of thermodynamics. Heat capacities and latent heats. Enthalpy.

3. Entropy. The second law. Carnot cycle. Clausius' theorem. Conditions of the thermodynamical equilibrium. Entropy of mixing and Gibbs paradox.

4. Heat engines and their efficiencies. Carnot and Stirling engines. Refrigerator. The throttling process and liquefaction of gases. Steam engines.

5. Thermodynamics in application. Free energy and free enthalpy. Phase transitions of pure substances. Phase transitions of mixtures. Dilute solutions. Chemical equilibrium.

6. The third law of thermodynamics.

7. Kinetic model of gases. Mean free path. Transport phenomena (viscosity, heat conduction, diffusion).

8. Systems of large number of particles. Models of thermodynamical systems. Statistical definition of entropy.

9. Boltzmann statistics. Mean values. Equipartition theorem. Example of the ideal gas.

10. Introduction to quantum statistics. Grand canonical ensemble. Bosons and fermions. Degenerate Fermi gas. Blackbody radiation.

To receive the credit it is necessary to attend the exercise classes, to collect at least 50% of points from two tests or from the written part of the exam and finally to pass the oral examination.

Description by Marek Pfützner, June 2008.

## Bibliography

1. D.Halliday,R.Resnick, J.Walker, "Fundamentals of Physics", John Wiley & Sons, 2001.

2. M.W. Zemansky "Heat and Thermodynamics", McGraw-Hill.

3. D.V. Schroeder "An Introduction to Thermal Physics", Addison Wesley, 2000.

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