Physics of the Earth's interior 1100-2`FWZ
Investigation methods of the Earth and planets. Depth range of investigations. Local and global investigations, basic and applied investigations. Physical methods in the Earth's interior investigations: observations, experiments, theoretical investigations, modelling.
1. Earth in the Solar System
The Sun, planets and their satellites. Geocentric system. Heliocentric system of Kopernik.
2. Shape of the Earth
Flat Earth. Spherical Earth. Earth is not spherical - gravity, centrifugal force. Gravity potential and rotational ellipsoid. Geoid. Pratt and Airy isostazy. Density distribution in the Earth's interior. Bouguer anomaly.
3. Seismicity of the Earth
Earthquake. Spatial distribution of earthquakes. Seismometry, arrays of seismic stations. Magnitude and energy of the earthquake. Mercalli and Richter scales.
Earthquakes generating tsunami: amplitude and velocity of tsunami. Catastrophic tsunami: Lisabon 1755, Sumatra 2004 and Samoa 2009. Mechanism of tsunami.
5. Elastic properties of rocks
Elastic parameters: density and porosity, anisotropy of seismic velocities. Elastic properties of rocks in high temperature and pressure.
6. Seismic waves
Theoretical background. Navier equation in elastic medium. P and S body waves, surface waves.
7. Models of the seismic source
Single force, couple of forces and double couple of forces. P and S wave radiation from the seismic source. Processes in the seismic source, sequence of quakes.
8. Earthquake prediction
Physical processes of the earthquake. Earthquake prediction. Statistical prediction, precursor phenomena, aftershocks.
9. Seismology and Earth interior structure
Equation of seismic ray in spherical Earth model. Parametric equation of the travel time. Jeffreys-Bullen travel time. Seismic waves in the Earth. Earth structure - crust, mantle, outer core, inner core. Tomography of the mantle.
10. Structural seismology
Structure of the crust and upper mantle. Moho discontinuity. Deep seismic soundings. Huge seismic experiments. Seismic tomography of the Earth's crust. Continental and oceanic crust.
11. Earth's magnetic field
Magnetic field: declination, inclination. Drift of magnetic field, reverse of polarity. Linear magnetic anomalies. Palaeomagnetism.
12. Geophysics and new global tectonics
Lithosphere and asthenosphere. Age of oceans. Heat flow. "Cold" continental lithosphere, "hot" oceanic lithosphere. Edges of lithospheric plates. Subduction zones and rifts. Wegener's hypothesis: plates movement and continental drift. Model of convection cell. New global tectonics. Future of continents.
Description by Marek Grad, October 2009.
1. D.Gubbins, Seismology and Plate Tectonics
2. K.Aki & P.G.Richards, Quantitative Seismology: Theory and Methods
3. G.Schubert (Ed.), Treatise on Geophysics, vol. 1-11.
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