Child on the Web – Social and Antisocial Functioning of Children and Young People in Cyberspace 2500-EN-PS-EAc6-06
The aim of the course is to present the characteristics of social functioning of children and young people in cyberspace. We will focus primarily on such specific online risks as: access to inappropriate content, dangerous contacts, paedophilia and child pornography on the web, sexting, cyberbullying, internet addiction. We will discuss the psychological causes and effects of negative activity of children and young people online as well as prevention and intervention methods and the role of schools and parents in educating children on safe internet use.
After the course the student:
- Knows the most important research results of the characteristics of the activity of children and young people online
- Knows the typology of internet threats for children and youth
- Describes the psychological causes underlying engagement in risky online behaviors
- Describes the psychological consequences for children arising from internet threats
- Recognizes the basic methods of prevention and intervention in internet threats for children cases
-Develops team work and presentation skills
Team work - class presentations (25%) – each class will contain a team work activity and short presentation of its effects. The presentations will be created during class in teams on zoom. The summary of this work (presentations should not exceed 5-10 minutes) will be shortly presented by rotating team members during the last part of class. I will assess the whole process of presentation preparation – the work during the team activities collaboration and the final presentation. The thematic scope will correspond with the nine topics: access to inappropriate content, dangerous contacts – two aspects, cyberbullying, hate speech, sexting, computer games and aggression, online gambling and the internet of toys.
Exam (25%) There will be a single choice test consisted of 15 questions based on the basic reading list.
2 unexcused absence. Only sick leave and extreme life situations will be handled as a valid excuse for more. An additional task will then be assigned. Missing more than 4 classes results in failing the course.
Essay (50%) The task is to select a specific online threat to children, describe and classify it in terms of developmental aspects, cyberthreats analysis and psychological mechanisms that underlie the cyberphenomenon by giving examples of links, printscreenes presenting how does the threat looks like in children real online lives. I will assess the quality of how well were the connections between the chosen cyberthreats and research on various aspects of cybersafety drawn, explained and emphasized. Essays submission – 12.01.22.
The course will cover the following topics:
1. Introduction to children's online activity - the positive and negative functioning of children and young people in cyberspace – 6.10.21.
Bavelier D, Green CS, Dye MW. Children, wired: for better and for worse. Neuron. 2010 Sep 9;67(5):692-701. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.08.035. PMID: 20826302; PMCID: PMC3170902.
Xie et al (2018). Can Touchscreen Devices be Used to Facilitate Young Children's Learning? A Meta-Analysis of Touchscreen Learning Effect. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02580 https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02580
2. Development in interaction with social psychological mechanisms in interactive media use – 13.10.21.
Konijn, E. et al. (2015). Adolescent Development and Psychological Mechanisms in Interactive Media Use. In: S. Sunder, (ed). (2015). The Handbook of the Psychology of Communication Technology. Oxford: Willey Blackwell.
Walther, J.B., B Van Der Heide, et al. (2015). Interpersonal and Hyperpersonal Dimensions of Computer-Mediated Communication. In: S. Sunder, (ed). (2015). The Handbook of the Psychology of Communication Technology. Oxford: Willey Blackwell.
3. Typology of online threats – 20.10.21.
Smahel, D., Machackova, H., Mascheroni, G., Dedkova, L., Staksrud, E., Ólafsson, K., Livingstone, S., and Hasebrink, U. (2020). EU Kids Online 2020: Survey results from 19 countries. EU Kids Online. https://doi.org/10.21953/lse.47fdeqj01ofo
Alsehaima AO, Alanazi AA (2018). Psychological and Social Risks to Children of Using the Internet: Literature Review. J Child Adolesc Behav 6: 380. doi:10.4172/2375-4494.100038
4. Access to inappropriate content –27.10.21.
Harrison, K., Hefner, V. Media, Body Image, and Eating Disorders. In: Calvert, S. & Willson, B. (ed.) (2011). The hanbook of Children, Media, and Development. Oxford: Willey Blackwell.
5. Access to inappropriate content – suicide promotion – 3.11.21.
Marchant, A., Hawton, K., Stewart, A., Montgomery, P., Singaravelu, V., Lloyd, K. et al. (2017) A systematic review of the relationship between internet use, self-harm and suicidal behaviour in young people: The good, the bad and the unknown. PLoS ONE 12(8), doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181722.
6. Dangerous contact online – pedophilia – 10.11.21.
Dafna Tener, Janis Wolak & David Finkelhor (2015): A Typology of Offenders Who Use Online Communications to Commit Sex Crimes Against Minors, Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 24, pp. 319-337, doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2015.1009602.
7. Sexting – 17.11.21.
Ringrose, J., Harvey, L., Gill, R., and Livingstone, S. (2013). Teen girls, sexual double standards and 'sexting': gendered value in digital image exchange. Feminist Theory, 14 (3). pp. 305-323.
8. Cyberbullying – 24.11.21.
Barlińska, J., Szuster, A., Winiewski, M. (2018). Cyberbullying Among Adolescent Bystanders: Role of Affective versus Cognitive Empathy in Increasing Prosocial Cyberbystander Behavior. Frontiers in Psychology-Educational Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00799.
9. Hate speech – 1.12.21.
Soral, W., Bilewicz, M., Winiewski, M. (2017). Exposure to hate speech increases prejudice through desensitization. Aggressive Behavior, 44(2), pp.136-146. DOI:10.1002/ab.21737.
10. Computer games, aggression and unwanted purchases – 8.12.21.
Engelhardt, C. R., Bartholow, B. D., Kerr, G. T., & Bushman, B. J. (2011). This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 1033-1036.
11. Internet addiction and online gambling – 15.12.21.
Macey, J., Hamarie, J. (2018). Sports, skins and loot boxes: Participants, practices and problematic behaviour associated with emergent forms of gambling. New media & society, pp. 1–22.
12. Internet of toys – 22.12.21.
Carr, J. (2017). The internet of toys – the impact on children of a connected environment, Journal of Cyber Policy, DOI: 10.1080/23738871.2017.1355401
13. Methods of worldwide intervention and prevention – a guest presentation of the Saferinternet Project Representative – 12.01.22.
Dinh, T., Farrugia, L., O’Neill, B., Vandoninck, S., Velicu, A. (2016). Insafe Helplines: Operations, effectiveness and emerging issues for internet safety helplines. Brussels: Insafe, European Schoolnet, 2016.
14. Test – 19.01.22.
15. The mediative role of schools and parents – 26.01.22.
Chakroff, Nathanson (2011). Parent and school interventions. In: Calvert, S. & Willson, B. (ed.) (2011). The hanbook of Children, Media, and Development. Oxford: Willey Blackwell.
The basic reading list is obligatory for all students and will be the basis for the test. Additionally a non-obligatory reading list consisted of various sources: journal research papers, book chapters, NGO reports, educational tool kits in order to best present the characteristics of online risky behavior it is a list for initial inspiration for the in class presentations and for inspiration in writing the final essay is presented below. All materials will be put on google classroom.
As the topic of internet safety is very dynamic some positions may be changed/ added even during the current semester.
Berne S., Frisén A, Kling J (2014). Appearance-related cyberbullying: a qualitative investigation of characteristics, content, reasons, and effects. Body Image, doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.08.006.
Brown, J, Keller, S., Stern, S. (2009). Sex, Sexuality, Sexting, and SexEd: Adolescents and the Media.
Bushman, B., J., Anderson C., A. (2002). Violent Video Games and Hostile Expectations: A Test of the General Aggression Model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(12), pp. 1679-1686 doi.org/10.1177/014616702237649.
Carr, et.al (2008). Interaction of Interpersonal, Peer, and Media Influence Sources Online: A Research Agenda for Technology Convergence
Casilli, Antonio A., Tubaro, Paola & Pedro Araya (2012) Ten years of Ana. Lessons from a transdisciplinary body of literature on online pro-eating disorder websites, Social Science Information, 51/1, pp. 121-139.
Chiara, S., David Finkelhor, D., Wolak J. (2008). The Nature and Dynamics of Interne Pornography Exposure for Youth. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11 (6), pp. 691–693, doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.0179.
Duerager, Andrea and Livingstone, Sonia (2012). How can parents support children’s internet safety? EU Kids Online, London, UK.
DeSmet, A., Van Cleemput, K. et al. (2015). Bridging behavior science and gaming theory: Using the Intervention Mapping Protocol to design a serious game against cyberbullying. Computers In Human Behavior, (56), pp. 337-351.
Greitemeyer, T., Osswald, S., Brauer, M. (2010). Playing Prosocial Video Games Increases Empathy and Decreases Schadenfreude, Emotion, 10 (6), pp. 796 – 802.
Griffiths, MD. and Parke, J. (2010). Adolescent gambling on the Internet: A review, International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 22 (1), pp. 59-75.
Hasebrink, Uwe, Görzig, Anke, Haddon, Leslie, Kalmus, Veronika and Livingstone, Sonia (2011) Patterns of risk and safety online: in-depth analyses from the EU Kids Online survey of 9- to 16-year-olds and their parents in 25 European countries. EU Kids Online, Deliverable D5. EU Kids Online, London, UK. , pp. 41-89.
Holloway, D., Green, L. and Livingstone, S. (2013). Zero to eight. Young children and their internet use. LSE, London: EU Kids Online.
Holloway, D. Green, L. (2016).The Internet of toys. Communication Research and Practice. DOI: 10.1080/22041451.2016.1266124.
Iannotta, J. Regulating the media: Sexually Explicit Content. In: Calvert, S. & Willson, B. (ed.) (2011). The hanbook of Children, Media, and Development. Oxford: Willey Blackwell.
Joinson, A. (2007). Causes and implications of disinhibited behavior on the internet,. In: J. Gackenbach (ed.), Psychology and the Internet (pp. 43–60). San Diego: Academic Press.
Kim-Kwang, R. (2009). Online child grooming: a literature review on the misuse of social networking sites for grooming children for sexual offences. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, pp. 29-47.
Mehroof, Griffiths. (2010). Online Gaming Addiction: The Role of Sensation Seeking, Self-Control, Neuroticism, Aggression, State Anxiety, and Trait Anxiety, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(3), pp. 313-316, doi:10.1089/cyber.2009.0229.
Sabina, C., Wolak, Finkelhor. (2008). The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth. CyberPsychology & Behavior. 11(6), pp. 691-693. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.0179.
Slojne, R., Smith, P. K. (2008). Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49(2), pp. 147–154.
Sticca, F., Ruggieri, S., Alsaker, F., Perren, S. (2013). Longitudinal Risk Factors for Cyberbulyling in Adolescence. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology. 23 (1), pp. 52–67.
Tener, Wolak, Finkelhor (2015): A Typology of Offenders Who Use Online Communications to Commit Sex Crimes Against Minors, Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma.
Unicef (2017) Children in a Digital World. ISBN 978-92-806-4938-3. www.unicef.org.
Williams, R., Elliott, I. A. & Beech, A. R. (2013). Identifying sexual grooming themes used by Internet sex offenders. Deviant Behavior, 34(2), pp. 135-152.
Willson, B. Media Violence and Aggression in youth. In: Calvert, S. & Willson, B. (ed.) (2011). The handbook of Children, Media, and Development. Oxford: Willey Blackwell.
Whittle, H. C., Hamilton-Giachritsis, C. , Beech A. R. (2013).Victims Voices: The Impact of Online Grooming and Sexual Abuse. Universal Journal of Psychology 1(2): 59-71,DOI: 10.13189/ujp.2013.010206
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